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The protein chip technology, which is the next generation biochip technology after DNA chips, is the technology that fixes tens to thousands of proteins on a slide glass and analyzes protein interaction simultaneously. The protein chip technology can broadly be divided into 3 essential technology areas: protein chip production technology, protein interaction analysis technology, and protein chip system application technology. As the human body is composed of more than a million proteins, protein chips have diverse application areas. The Bionano Research Center developed the surface plasmon resonance imaging system that can measure protein chips in a non-labeling method without using materials such as fluorescent isotopes. Currently diverse biomarkers are produced with protein chips and used to screen materials for new drugs at an ultra-high speed and to diagnose diseases. This research, being executed as the next generation growth engine project of MOST, is focused on the development of protein chips that will decrease the new drug development cost dramatically.
In this research, bio molecules such as proteins are bound to useful inorganic materials such as nano metal particles or nano magnetic particles to observe the changes in protein characteristics. As nano metal particles have different colors according to their sizes, the colors can be used as codes to detect diverse protein-protein interactions in real time. The nano magnetic particles, which make it easy for the bound proteins to separate, can be used to develop the principles of new biosensors by applying them to silicon chips in the electronics area.
Biosensors, composed of bio-receptors and signal transducers, are an element that can selectively sense materials to analyze. The research team performs research that analyzes the whole process of surface chemistry, bio-receptor fixation, and biosensing using SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance) biosensors. Through the research, binding characteristics of diverse bio molecules are understood and used as the basic tools for high performance biosensors. To develop the biosensors that can be applied to all health diagnoses (ubiquitous health) beyond the current limited application in blood sugar sensors, the development of nano biosensors are in progress by using nano particles, nanogaps, nano patterned surface, and quantum dots.
The Bionano Fab, established in the research center in early 2004, shows the firm willingness of the research center toward the full-fledged BT-IT-NT convergence technology. The Bionano Fab is filed with photolithographic process equipment generally used in the semiconductor industry. As the work inside the fab should be carried out in a clean environment without dust particles, the fab is maintained at the level of class 1000 to class 10000 by air conditioning facilities. Representative equipment of the fab includes pattern equipment that produces desired patterns by applying ultraviolet rays as in photo development, thin-film fabrication equipment, the equipment used to etch substrates, surface processing equipment, etc. The research/development results that can be expected by using the equipment include biosensors that can measure bio materials in ultra-small quantities by using electric and optical principles, lab-on-a-chips that can perform PCR, separation, and detection of extremely small amount of samples in the unit ranging nano liter to pico liter on a substrate in a few square centimeter, and protein chips that can pattern and measure diverse bio contents in the unit of hundreds to thousands on a substrate in the size of 1cm×1cm.

KRIBB Bionano Research Center makes an effort to provide new tools to approach the research areas performed by the existing bio researchers in the unit of molecules and at a fast speed or to create the development synergy effect in biotechnology by combining the research on biotechnology, NT, and IT through the development protein chips and nano-biosensors using diverse bio-markers.
◆ SPR imaging system
The Nano Research Center, in cooperation with the precision analysis equipment venture business K-MAC (President Joong-whan Lee, http://www.kmac.to), developed and commercialized the protein chip analysis system SPRi (Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging) in 2005 that can analyze 10,000 specimens at a time.

Using the phenomenon of oscillation of free electrons in group generated when the surface of thin metal film is exposed to external light that has specific wavelengths or momentum, SPRi analyzes protein chips based on the index of refraction according to the change of the incidence angle. This system eliminated the inconvenience of the existing analysis system that requires physical/chemical deformation and labeling of the specimens with radiation or fluorescent material.
◆ Development of cosmetic pigment by using nano particles

With the support of ‘Bio-system Nanobio Research Development Project’ of Chungcheongbuk-do as a part of the ‘Local Government Initiated Research Development Project’ of MOCIE, the Nano Research Center developed color cosmetic production technology by using nano gold and nano silver particles. A patent is pending for the development and a technology transfer contract was made with the cosmetic manufacturer ‘Natural F&B"for commercialization of the development.

Gold, effective in physiological vitalization, and silver, which is antibacterial, are used as base materials to produce 10 colors by mixing red, blue, and yellow nano particles in the size of 10 ? 20 nm in ultra-small amounts in diverse ratios. It is the case the development was applied to daily products.

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